For example: a carbon-14 atom (the "parent") emits radiation and transforms to a nitrogen-14 atom (the "daughter").It is impossible to predict when a given atom will decay, but given a large number of similar atoms, the decay rate on average is predictable.Radiation counters are used to detect the electrons given off by decaying C-14 as it turns into nitrogen.The amount of C-14 is compared to the amount of C-12, the stable form of carbon, to determine how much radiocarbon has decayed, thereby dating the artifact.
We have rocks from the Moon (brought back), meteorites, and rocks that we know came from Mars.
Carbon dioxide is distributed on a worldwide basis into various atmospheric, biospheric, and hydrospheric reservoirs on a time scale much shorter than its half-life.
Measurements have shown that in recent history, radiocarbon levels have remained relatively constant in most of the biosphere due to the metabolic processes in living organisms and the relatively rapid turnover of carbonates in surface ocean waters.
After the organism dies, carbon-14 continues to decay without being replaced.
To measure the amount of radiocarbon left in a artifact, scientists burn a small piece to convert it into carbon dioxide gas.